Difference: TextFormattingRules (47 vs. 48)

Revision 482005-03-27 - Main.TWikiContributor

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TWiki Text Formatting

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Working in TWiki is as easy as typing in text - exactly like email. You don't need to know HTML, though you can use it if you prefer. Links to topics are created automatically when you enter WikiWords. And TWiki shorthand gives you all the power of HTML with a simple coding system that takes no time to learn. It's all laid out below - refer back to this page in a pop-up window from the Edit screen.
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Working in TWiki is as easy as typing in text. You don't need to know HTML, though you can use it if you prefer. Links to topics are created automatically when you enter WikiWords. And TWiki shorthand gives you all the power of HTML with a simple coding system that takes no time to learn. It's all laid out below.
 

TWiki Editing Shorthand

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Formatting Command: Example: You write: You get:
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Formatting Command: You write: You get:
 
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  Paragraphs:
Blank lines will create new paragraphs.
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 1st paragraph

2nd paragraph

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 1st paragraph

2nd paragraph

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  Headings:
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At least three dashes at the beginning of a line, followed by plus signs and the heading text. One plus creates a level 1 heading (most important), two pluses a level 2 heading; the maximum is level 6. Note: A Table of Content can be created automatically with the %TOC% variable, see TWikiVariables. Any heading text after !! is excluded from the TOC; for example, write ---+!! text if you do not want to list a header in the TOC.
---++ Sushi

---+++ Maguro

Sushi

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Three or more dashes at the beginning of a line, followed by plus signs and the heading text. One plus creates a top level heading, two pluses a second level heading, etc. The maximum heading depth is 6.
 
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Maguro

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You can create a table of contents with the %TOC% variable. If you want to exclude a heading from the TOC, put !! after the ---+.

ALERT! Empty headings are allowed, but won't appear in the table of contents.

---++ Sushi
---+++ Maguro
---+++!! Not in TOC

Sushi

Maguro

Not in TOC

 
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  Bold Text:
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Words get bold by enclosing them in * asterisks.

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Words get shown in bold by enclosing them in * asterisks.
 Bold
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 Bold
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  Italic Text:
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Words get italic by enclosing them in _ underscores.

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Words get shown in italic by enclosing them in _ underscores.
 Italic
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 Italic
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  Bold Italic:
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Words get _bold italic by enclosing them in _ double-underscores.

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Words get shown in bold italic by enclosing them in __ double-underscores.
 Bold italic
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 Bold italic
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  Fixed Font:
Words get shown in fixed font by enclosing them in = equal signs.
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 Fixed font
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 Fixed font

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  Bold Fixed Font:
Words get shown in bold fixed font by enclosing them in double equal signs.
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 Bold fixed
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 Bold fixed
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Note: Make sure there is no space between the text and the bold, italic, or other indicators (* _ __ = ==).

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TIP You can follow the closing bold, italic, or other (* _ __ = ==) indicator with normal punctuation, such as commas and full stops.

ALERT! Make sure there is no space between the text and the indicators.

 This works,
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_this not _
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_this does not _
 This works,
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_this not _
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_this does not _
 
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Verbatim Mode:
Surround code excerpts and other formatted text with <verbatim> and </verbatim> tags.
Note: Use <pre> and </pre> tags instead if you want that HTML code is interpreted.
Note: Each tag must be on a line by itself.
<verbatim>

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Verbatim (Literal) Text:
Surround code excerpts and other formatted text with <verbatim> and </verbatim> tags.
TIP verbatim tags disable HTML code. Use <pre> and </pre> tags instead if you want the HTML code within the tags to be interpreted.
ALERT! NOTE: Preferences variables (* Set NAME = value) are set within verbatim tags.
<verbatim></verbatim>
<nop>
 class CatAnimal { void purr() {
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<code here>
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  } }
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</verbatim>
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class CatAnimal {
  void purr() {
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Separator:
At least three dashes at the beginning of a line.

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Separator (Horizontal Rule):
Three or more three dashes at the beginning of a line..
 
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List Item:
Three spaces, an asterisk, and another space.
	* bullet item
  • bullet item
Nested List Item:
Six, nine, ... spaces, an asterisk, and another space.

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Bulleted List:
Multiple of three spaces, an asterisk, and another space.
HELP For all the list types, you can break a list item over several lines by indenting lines after the first one by at least 3 spaces.
 
  • level 1
    • level 2
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  • back on 1
  • A bullet broken over three lines
  • last bullet
 
  • level 1
    • level 2
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  • back on 1
  • A bullet broken over three lines
  • last bullet
 
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Ordered List:
Three spaces, a number, a dot, and another space. Several types are available besides a number:
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Numbered List:
Multiple of three spaces, a type character, a dot, and another space. Several types are available besides a number:
 
Type Generated Style Sample Sequence
1. Arabic numerals 1, 2, 3, 4...
A. Uppercase letters A, B, C, D...
a. Lowercase letters a, b, c, d...
I. Uppercase Roman Numerals I, II, III, IV...
i. Lowercase Roman Numerals i, ii, iii, iv...
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  1. Sushi
  2. Dim Sum
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  1. Fondue
 
  1. Sushi
  2. Dim Sum
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  1. Fondue
 
  1. Sushi
  2. Dim Sum
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  1. Fondue
 
  1. Sushi
  2. Dim Sum
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  1. Fondue
 
  1. Sushi
  2. Dim Sum
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  1. Fondue
 
  1. Sushi
  2. Dim Sum
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  1. Fondue
 
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  Definition List:
Three spaces, a dollar sign, the term, a colon, a space, followed by the definition.
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Sushi
Japan
Dim Sum
S.F.
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Sushi
Japan
Dim Sum
S.F.
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  Table:
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Any number of lines of text. Each line is one row of the table consisting of one or more cells. Each cell starts and ends with a vertical bar '|'. Any spaces at the beginning of a line are ignored.
Notes:
| *bold* | cells are displayed as table headers.
|   center-spaced   | cells are displayed center aligned.
|     right-spaced | cells are displayed right aligned.
| 2 colspan || cells are displayed as multi-span columns (i.e., a cell with no text spans a column).
|^| cells with a caret indicate follow-up rows of multi-span rows (this functionality is provided by TablePlugin).
• If a row contains a large amount of text, and you want it to be more readable while editing the table, split the row into multiple text lines by ending each line with a backslash character '\'.
• Table cells wrap automatically as determined by the browser.

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Each row of the table is a line containing of one or more cells. Each cell starts and ends with a vertical bar '|'. Any spaces at the beginning of a line are ignored.
  • | *bold* | header cell with text in asterisks
  • |   center-aligned   | cell with at least two, and equal number of spaces on either side
  • |      right-aligned | cell with more spaces on the left
  • | 2 colspan || and multi-span columns with multiple |'s right next to each other
  • |^| cell with caret indicating follow-up row of multi-span rows
  • You can split rows over multiple lines by putting a backslash '\' at the end of each line
  • Contents of table cells wrap automatically as determined by the browser
TIP The TablePlugin provides the |^| multiple-span row functionality and additional rendering features
 
L C R
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A2 2 2
A3 3 3
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A2 B2 C2
A3 B3 C3
 
multi span
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A4-6 four four
five five

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A5-7 5 5
 
six six
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seven seven
split over 3 lines
A9 B9 C9
 
L C R
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A2 2 2
A3 3 3
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A2 B2 C2
A3 B3 C3
 
multi span
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A4-6 four four
five five
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A5-7 5 5
 
six six
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seven seven
split over 3 lines
A9 B9 C9
 
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  WikiWord Links:
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CapitalizedWordsStuckTogether (or WikiWords) will produce a link automatically.
Note: In case you want to link to a topic in a different TWiki web write Otherweb.TopicName. (The link label is the the name of the web in case the is WebHome, else it is the topic name)
WebNotify

Main.TWikiUsers
WebNotify
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CapitalizedWordsStuckTogether (or WikiWords) will produce a link automatically if preceded by whitespace or parenthesis.
TIP If you want to link to a topic in a different web write Otherweb.TopicName.
HELP The link label excludes the name of the web, e.g. only the topic name is shown. As an exception, the name of the web is shown for the WebHome topic.

It's generally a good idea to use the TWikiVariables %TWIKIWEB% and %MAINWEB% instead of TWiki and Main.

WebStatistics
 
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TWikiUsers
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WebNotify

Sandbox

WebStatistics

WebNotify

Sandbox

 
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Anchors:
You can define a reference inside a TWiki topic (called an anchor name) and link to that. To define an anchor write #AnchorName at the beginning of a line. The anchor name must be a WikiWord. To link to an anchor name use the [[MyTopic#MyAnchor]] syntax. You can omit the topic name if you want to link within the same topic.
[[WikiWord#NotThere]]

[[#MyAnchor][Jump]]

#MyAnchor To here
WikiWord#NotThere

Jump

To here

  Forced Links:
You can create a forced internal link by enclosing words in double square brackets.
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Note: Text within the brackets may contain optional spaces; the topic name is formed by capitalizing the initial letter and by removing the spaces; for example, [[text formatting FAQ]] links to topic TextFormattingFAQ. You can also refer to a different web and use anchors.
Note: To "escape" double square brackets that would otherwise be a correct link, prefix the leading left square brackets with an exclamation point, that is, begin with ![[....

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Text within the brackets may contain optional spaces; the topic name is formed by capitalizing the initial letter and by removing the spaces; for example, [[text formatting FAQ]] links to topic TextFormattingFAQ. You can also refer to a different web and use anchors.
TIP To "escape" double square brackets that would otherwise make a link, prefix the leading left square bracket with an exclamation point.
 wiki syntax
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Main.TWiki users
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Main.TWiki users
  escaped: [[wiki syntax]]
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 wiki syntax

Main.TWiki users

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 [[wiki syntax]]
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  Specific Links:
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Create a link where you can specify the link text and the link reference separately, using nested square brackets like [[reference][text]]. Internal link references (e.g. WikiSyntax) and external link references (e.g. http://TWiki.org/) are supported.
Note: The same Forced Links rules apply for internal link references.
Note: For external link references, you can simply use a space instead of ][ to separate the link URL from the descriptive text.
Note: Anchor names can be added as well, like [[WebHome#MyAnchor][go home]] and [[http://gnu.org/#Action][GNU Action]].
[[WikiSyntax][syntax]]

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You can create a link where you specify the link text and the URL separately using nested square brackets [[reference][text]]. Internal link references (e.g. WikiSyntax) and URLs (e.g. http://TWiki.org/) are both supported. The rules described under Forced Links apply for internal link references.
TIP Anchor names can be added as well, to create a link to a specific place in a topic.
[[WikiSyntax][wiki syntax]]
  GNU
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XML
syntax
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wiki syntax
  GNU
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XML
 
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Anchors:
You can define a link reference inside a TWiki topic (called an anchor name) and link to that. To define an anchor write #AnchorName at the beginning of a line. The anchor name must be a WikiWord. To link to an anchor name use the [[MyTopic#MyAnchor]] syntax. You can omit the topic name if you want to link within the same topic.
[[WikiWord#NotThere]]

[[#MyAnchor][Jump]]

#MyAnchor To here
WikiWord#NotThere

Jump

To here

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  Prevent a Link:
Prevent a WikiWord from being linked by prepending it with an exclamation point.
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 SunOS
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 SunOS
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  Disable Links:
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You can disable automatic linking of WikiWords by surrounding text with <noautolink> and </noautolink> tags.
Note: Each tag must be on a line by itself.
Note: This also works for TWiki tables, but only if you add a blank line between the end of the table and the closing </noautolink> tag (known issue of the TablePlugin).
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You can disable automatic linking of WikiWords by surrounding text with <noautolink> and </noautolink> tags.
HELP It is possible to turn off all auto-linking with a NOAUTOLINK preferences setting.
 
 <noautolink>
 RedHat &
 SuSE
 </noautolink>
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  RedHat & SuSE
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Mailto: Links:
To create 'mailto:' links that have more descriptive link text, specify subject lines or message bodies, or omit the email address, you can write [[mailto:user@domain descriptive text]].
[[mailto:a@z.com Mail]]

[[mailto:?subject=Hi Hi]]
Mail
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Mailto Links:
E-mail addresses are linked automatically. To create e-mail links that have more descriptive link text, specify subject lines or message bodies, or omit the e-mail address, you can write [[mailto:user@domain][descriptive text]].
a@b.com
 
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Hi
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Mail

Hi

a@b.com

Mail

Hi

 

Using HTML

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You can use just about any HTML tag without a problem - however, there are a few usability and technical considerations to keep in mind.

HTML and TWiki Usability

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You can use just about any HTML tag without a problem. You can add HTML if there is no TWiki equivalent, for example, write <strike>deleted text</strike> to get deleted text.
 
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  • TIP TIP: On collaboration pages, it's preferable NOT to use HTML, and to use TWiki shorthand instead - this keeps the text uncluttered and easy to edit.
  • ALERT! NOTE: TWiki is designed to work with a wide range of browsers and computer platforms, holding to HTML 4.0 and XHTML 1.0 compatibility in the standard installation - adding raw HTML, particularly browser-specific tags (or any other mark-up that doesn't degrade well) will reduce compatibility.
  • Recommondations when using HTML:
    • Use XHTML 1.0 Transitional syntax
    • Do not span a tag over more then one line
    • Remove all empty lines. TWiki inserts <p /> paragraph tags on empty lines, which causes problems if done between tags that do not allow paragraph tags, like for example between table tags.
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ALERT! There are a few usability and technical considerations to keep in mind:
  • On collaboration pages, it's better not to use HTML, but to use TWiki shorthand instead - this keeps the text uncluttered and easy to edit.
  • If you use HTML use XHTML 1.0 Transitional syntax.
  • ALERT! Script tags may be filtered out, at the discretion of your TWiki administrator.
 
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Recommendations when pasting HTML from other sources:
  • Copy only text between <body> and </body> tags.
  • Remove all empty lines. TWiki inserts <p /> paragraph tags on empty lines, which causes problems if done between HTML tags that do not allow paragraph tags, like for example between table tags.
  • Remove leading spaces. TWiki might interpret some text as lists.
  • Do not span a tag over more than one line. TWiki requires that the opening and closing angle brackets - <...> - of an HTML tag are on the same line, or the tag will be broken.
  • In your HTML editing program, save without hard line breaks on text wrap.
 
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TWiki HTML Rendering

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TIP TWiki converts shorthand notation to HTML for display. To copy a fully marked-up page, simply view the source in your browser and save the contents. If you need to save HTML frequently, you may want to check out TWiki:Plugins/PublishAddOn.
 
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  • TWiki converts shorthand notation to XHTML 1.0 for display. To copy a fully marked-up page, simply view source in your browser and save the contents.
    • TIP If you need to save HTML frequently, you may want to check out TWiki:Plugins/GenHTMLAddon - it will "generate a directory containing rendered versions of a set of TWiki pages together with any attached files."
  • ALERT! NOTE: The opening and closing angle brackets - <...> - of an HTML tag must be on the same line, or the tag will be broken.
    • This feature allows you to enter an unclosed angle bracket - as a greater than or less than symbol - and have it automatically rendered as if you had entered its HTML character, &lt;, ex: a < b
    • TIP If you're pasting in preformatted HTML text and notice problems, check the file in a text processor with no text wrap. Also, save without hard line breaks on text wrap, in your HTML editing program.
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Script tags

 
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TWiki and JavaScript

You can use JavaScript for your TWiki applications. Since TWiki rendering might interfere with JavaScript code you need to escape it with HTML comments and <pre> tags:

<script type="text/javascript">
<!-- Hide JavaScript and <pre> escape TWiki rendering
... put your JavaScript code here...
// Stop hiding and stop </pre> escaping TWiki rendering -->
</script>
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You can use HTML <script> tags for your TWiki applications. However note that your TWiki administrator can disable <script> in topics, and may have chosen to do so for security considerations. TWiki markup and TWikiVariables are not expanded inside script tags.
 

Hyperlinks

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Being able to create links without any formatting required is a core TWiki feature, made possible with WikiWords. New TWiki linking rules are a simple extension of the syntax that provide a new set of flexible options.
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Being able to create links without any special formatting is a core TWiki feature, made possible with WikiWords and inline URLs.
 

Internal Links

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  • GoodStyle is a WikiWord that links to the GoodStyle topic located in the current TWiki web.
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  • GoodStyle is a WikiWord that links to the GoodStyle topic located in the current web.
 
  • NotExistingYet is a topic waiting to be written. Create the topic by clicking on the ?. (Try clicking, but then, Cancel - creating the topic would wreck this example!)
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  • http://..., https://..., ftp://..., gopher://..., news://..., file://..., telnet://... and mailto:...@... are linked automatically.
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  • Email addresses like name@domain.com are linked automatically.
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  • E-mail addresses like name@domain.com are linked automatically.
 
  • [[Square bracket rules]] let you easily create non-WikiWord links.
    • You can also write [[http://yahoo.com Yahoo home page]] as an easier way of doing external links with descriptive text for the link, such as Yahoo home page.
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  • [[Square bracket rules]] let you easily create non-WikiWord links.
    • You can also write [[http://yahoo.com Yahoo home page]] as an easier way of doing external links with descriptive text for the link, such as Yahoo home page.
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TWiki Variables

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Variables are names that are enclosed in percent signs % that are expanded on the fly.
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TWiki Variables are names that are enclosed in percent signs % that are expanded on the fly.
 
  • %TOC% : Automatically generates a table of contents based on headings in a topic - see the top of this page for an example.
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  • %WEB% : The current web, is TWiki.
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  • %WEB% : The current web, is TWiki.
 
  • %TOPIC% : The current topic name, is TextFormattingRules.

  • %ATTACHURL% : The attachment URL of the current topic. Example usage: If you attach a file to a topic you can refer to it as %ATTACHURL%/image.gif to show the URL of the file or the image in your text.
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  • %INCLUDE{"SomeTopic"}% : Server side include, includes another topic. The current TWiki web is the default web. Example: %INCLUDE{"TWiki.SiteMap"}%
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  • %INCLUDE{"SomeTopic"}% : Server side include, includes another topic. The current web is the default web. Example: %INCLUDE{"TWiki.SiteMap"}%
 
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  • %SEARCH{"sushi"}% : Inline search showing the search result embedded in a topic. FormattedSearch gives you control over formatting, used to create web-based applications.
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  • %SEARCH{"sushi"}% : Inline search showing the search result embedded in a topic. FormattedSearch gives you control over formatting, useful for creating web-based applications.
 
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  • TWikiPreferences defines site-wide variables. Among others:
    • Line break: Write %BR% to start a new line.
    • Colored text: Write: %RED% Red %ENDCOLOR% and %BLUE% blue %ENDCOLOR% colors to get: Red and blue colors.
    • Documentation Graphics: Write: %H% Help, %T% Tip, %X% Alert to get: HELP Help, TIP Tip, ALERT! Alert. For more info see TWikiDocGraphics.
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  • TWikiPreferences defines some site-wide variables. Among others:
    • Line break: Write %BR% to start a new line.
    • Colored text: Write: %RED% Red %ENDCOLOR% and %BLUE% blue %ENDCOLOR% colors to get: Red and blue colors.
    • Documentation Graphics: Write: %H% Help, %T% Tip, %X% Alert to get: HELP Help, TIP Tip, ALERT! Alert. For more info see TWikiDocGraphics.
 
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  • To "escape" a variable, prefix it with an exclamation point. Write: !%SOMEVARIABLE% to get: %SOMEVARIABLE%.
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  • To "escape" a variable, prefix it with an exclamation mark. Write: !%SOMEVARIABLE% to get: %SOMEVARIABLE%.
 

TWikiPlugin Formatting Extensions

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Plugins provide additional text formatting capabilities and can extend the functionality of TWiki into many other areas. For example, the optional SpreadSheetPlugin lets you create a spreadsheet with the same basic notation used in TWiki tables.

Available Plugins are located in the Plugins web on TWiki.org. Currently enabled plugins on this TWiki installation, as listed by %PLUGINDESCRIPTIONS%:

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Plugins can extend the functionality of TWiki into many other areas. There are a huge number of TWiki plugins available from the Plugins web on TWiki.org.
 
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Currently enabled plugins on this TWiki installation, as listed by %PLUGINDESCRIPTIONS%:
 
  • SpreadSheetPlugin (any TWiki, $Rev: 17911 (29 Apr 2009) $): Add spreadsheet calculation like "$SUM( $ABOVE() )" to TWiki tables and other topic text
  • BlackListPlugin (any TWiki, $Rev: 15754 (12 Dec 2008) $): Utility to keep malicious users away from a public TWiki site
  • CommentPlugin (03 Aug 2008, $Rev: 17791 (29 Apr 2009) $): Allows users to quickly post comments to a page without an edit/preview/save cycle
  • EditTablePlugin (4.9.1, $Rev: 18014 (29 Apr 2009) $): Edit TWiki tables using edit fields, date pickers and drop down boxes
  • HeadlinesPlugin (2.21, $Rev: 17907 (29 Apr 2009) $): Show headline news in TWiki pages based on RSS and ATOM news feeds from external sites
  • InterwikiPlugin (28 Feb 2009, $Rev: 14913 (17 Sep 2007) $): Link ExternalSite:Page text to external sites based on aliases defined in a rules topic
  • PreferencesPlugin (TWiki-4.3, $Rev: 18016 (29 Apr 2009) $): Allows editing of preferences using fields predefined in a form
  • SlideShowPlugin (02 Aug 2008, $Rev: 17260 (29 Apr 2009) $): Create web based presentations based on topics with headings.
  • SmiliesPlugin (Dakar, $Rev: 16049 (29 Apr 2009) $): Render smilies as icons, like smile for  :-) or eek! for  :eek:
  • TWikiNetSkinPlugin: (disabled)
  • TablePlugin (1.036, $Rev: 17769 (29 Apr 2009) $): Control attributes of tables and sorting of table columns
  • TinyMCEPlugin (03 Aug 2008, $Rev: 17302 (29 Apr 2009) $): Integration of TinyMCE with WysiwygPlugin
  • TwistyPlugin (1.4.12, $Rev: 15653 (19 Nov 2007) $): Twisty section JavaScript library to open/close content dynamically
  • WysiwygPlugin (18 Apr 2009, $Rev: 18020 (29 Apr 2009) $): Translator framework for Wysiwyg editors

Check on current Plugin status and settings for this site in TWikiPreferences.

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  • Q: Why is the '&' character sometimes not displayed?
    • A: The '&' character has a special meaning in HTML, it starts a so called character entity, i.e. '&copy;' is the © copyright character. You need to escape '&' to see it as it is, so write '&amp;' instead of '&'.
      Example: Type 'This &amp; that' to get 'This & that'.
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-- TWiki:Main.MikeMannix - 02 Dec 2001
-- TWiki:Main.PeterThoeny - 01 Aug 2004
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Ideas, requests, problems regarding TWiki? Send feedback
Note: Please contribute updates to this topic on TWiki.org at TWiki:TWiki.TextFormattingRules